Italy

1

Portraits of Bardolino

Angelo Peretti serves as the Director of the Bardolino DOC, helping to hone the region’s vision of quality for the future.

Prior to stepping into the Director position seven years ago, Peretti had also already established two successful side-by-side careers in banking, and journalism. He continues in both today, with much of his writing now appearing through his Italian language website, The Internet Gourmet. He has also published numerous books on Italian wine, traveling through Northern Italy, and the history of Lake Garda.

Peretti’s original training was in art. Many of my favorite wine labels from wines of Lake Garda turned out to be designed by Peretti.

While his passion for the Lake Garda region means he has spent his life there, Peretti’s work in banking has brought him throughout Italy and Europe. Peretti’s deep knowledge of the region with his broader expectations for success have given him unique vision for Bardolino’s future.

As Cathy Huyghe explained in her Forbes.com article on Chiaretto, Peretti’s work with the consortium tripled sales of the rosé in just one year. By expanding the consortium’s success with rosé, Peretti has also helped open the way to greater quality for its red wines. Vineyard sites best suited to rosé production are often less appropriate for reds. In poor vintages, the region’s red grapes struggle with mildew, or to achieve ripeness. By establishing the region’s Chiaretto as a serious rosé, vintners can actually increase the seriousness of its reds as well.

Angelo Peretti guided Cathy Huyghe and I through the extended Lake Garda region for several days before this years Bardolino and Chiaretto Anteprima. On the final days before the Anteprima, writers Bill Zacharkiw, and Paul Balke also joined us. Spending a week traveling with Peretti revealed a unique combination of honesty, playfulness, and creative vision.

Contessa Rizzardi shared an insightful comment in discussing Peretti’s role as Director – she helped convince him to take the position. As she explains, “He is very nice because he says to people how things are.”

Following is a portion of Angelo Peretti’s story that he shared with us. He spoke to us in English.

Angelo Peretti, the Internet Gourmet

Angelo Peretti

Angelo Peretti, March 2015

At the end of the 19th century, Bardolino was considered one of the best wines in the world, not a concentrated wine, not a tannic wine. It was a light wine.

I want to return to that. We must reduce the amount of red wine, and increase Chiaretto, to better use the grapes by vintage. In a good vintage, we make red wine. In a harder vintage, we make more Chiaretto.

I want Bardolino to make drinkable wine that ages 6 years, and is very enjoyable but not silly. We have the same grapes as Valpolicella. Corvina is the most important. But we cannot make a copy of Valpolicella. When Bardolino was made to copy Valpolicella, the reds were horrible. We have very different soils, a very different climate.

So, I thought, we needed to go back to our roots, to make reds lighter in color, and alcohol, and taste. So, we decided to start with the rosés. What better to make lighter in color than rosé? Then we turn to the reds.

There is no other wine in Italy like Chiaretto. Chiaretto means, clear. Chiaretto represents our territory, and represents our lake.

We also make some sparkling Chiaretto. There are not many red grapes that can take frizzante, but Chiaretto can. It has the lightness, and higher acidity, and low tannin. The grapes can bear it, sparkling, and can be, I will not say unique, but very close to unique. [smiling]

Angelo Peretti

In our moranic hills, if the yields are too low, the vineyards suffer. If you have constant soils, you can decide how to industrialize your soil. We cannot, because in a hectare of soil, we can have four to seven types of soil. So, we cannot think in a specific way. [We must farm for the variation the land gives us.]

We want to go back to our roots.

Giovanni Battista Perez wrote that there are three different Bardolinos, one around the village of Bardolino, one for the inner hills near Monte Baldo, and one in the southern moranic hills. The goal is to go back to a study of the territory, and how each of the three areas are best expressed.

We are working towards going back to a crus model but it will take some time because it is not just an economic question. It is a mentality question. We must also change how we think about wine.

This is my goal. It is a challenge, but it is my country.

***

To read the other four portraits of Bardolino:

1. Gianni Piccoli of Corte Gardonihttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/23/portraits-of-bardolino-1-gianni-piccoli-corte-gardoni/

2. Matilde Poggi of Le Fraghehttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/27/portraits-of-bardolino-2-matilde-poggi-le-fraghe/

3. Carlo Nerozzi of Le Vigne di San Pietrohttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/30/portraits-of-bardolino-3-carlo-nerozzi-le-vigne-di-san-pietro/

4. Contessa Maria Cristina Rizzardi of Guerrieri Rizzardihttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/05/04/portraits-of-bardolino-4-contessa-maria-cristina-loredan-rizzardi-guerrieri-rizzardi/

Copyright 2015 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com.

1

Portraits of Bardolino

In Bardolino, some of the finest wines come from Guerrieri Rizzardi. Their quality is celebrated.

In the 1960s, Guerrieri Rizzardi owners, Count Antonio and Contessa Maria Cristina Rizzardi, founded the Bardolino Consortium, making it one of the first in Italy.

In 2010, Contessa Rizzardi received the prestigious Cavaliere del Lavoro award, recognized by the country of Italy with the highest honor given in agriculture for her contributions to Italian wine. She is the first woman to win the award.

In the late 1990s, the Rizzardi sons, Giuseppe and Agostino, became part of the Guerrieri Rizzardi business with Giuseppe serving as winemaker, and Agostino as general manager.

Contessa Rizzardi rarely meets with journalists. However, Angelo Perreti requested she make time for four of us. As a result, Paul Balke, Cathy Huyghe, Bill Zacharkiw, and myself were able to spend an afternoon with her.

Following is part of the story she shared. She spoke to us in English.

Contessa Maria Cristina Loredan Rizzardi, Guerrieri Rizzardi

Contessa Maria Cristina Rizzardi

 

Contessa Maria Cristina Rizzardi, March 2015

My husband was the founder of the Bardolino Consortium, in 1968. It was one of the first appellations and consortiums in Italy, for both olive oil and wine.

We wanted to specify what was Bardolino wine, how it was produced, and to defend it from confusion. It was the beginning of explaining Bardolino to the world.

There was a lot of fake Bardolino before then, red wine made elsewhere and made falsely. The fakes were being made because Bardolino was good. Otherwise, they would not have bothered. There are now 100 wineries that label as Bardolino. Before 1968, Bardolino was a generic term, and quality had already begun to reduce.

In the 1950s, Valpolicella was a younger wine region, and was not making as much wine as Bardolino.

Valpolicella started expanding in the 1980s. By chance they came up with passito. At first they made it frizzante, then they left it in barrels and discovered wonderful wine.

These last 10 years have made a difference for Bardolino. People understand the land, that you have to treat it well if you want to make good wine from it. It becomes very special.

Bardolino was named best place to live in all of Italy by the top financial paper in Italy, the “Happiest Place to Live in Italy.”

Winemaking and wine growing are becoming fashionable now. The culture needs very much patience and time. It is difficult. If you get land, and then in one night it is all gone, it is very difficult. But, [the young winemakers do not always know.] It is a fashion job now. I think this is partially because there is a desire to return to, or stay in the country life rather than the cities.

Guerrieri Rizzardi 2012 Munus

Bardolino is a blend. I cannot understand which one is this grape, or which is that grape. You have a perfect marriage of grapes when one grape is not prevailing over another. The perfect Bardolino, it should be light, and that perfect marriage. But I drink with passion, and without brains. [smiling]

The Munus is my favorite from the winery. It has a story. I had an Aunt. She was an old lady but she was so passionate about wine. The way she made it was difficult. She added sugar to it, and everything, but you know, she was an old lady. [smiling]

I decided to make a wine dedicated to her. Munus means, gift. So, I made it, and gave it to her for her 99th birthday, and on her 100th birthday she died.

It is wine that is half between the richness of Amarone, and the freshness of Bardolino. I think it is a very good wine.

We begin getting ready to leave.

Thank you. Thank you very much. I am very happy. I am quite happy to know you, and see how happy, and interested you are. Because to be happy, you must know what you are doing, and know yourself.

Cathy Huyghe asks the Contessa a question, “Is there anything you want this group of journalists to know?”

I don’t know you well enough.

We laugh. Cathy goes on to ask, “what would you want others to know about this region, Bardolino?”

You should know the balance that our territory and our wines can have. Our life – not too much of wine, not too much of sun, not too much of rain. It is for this reason that Bardolino has been nominated as the most happy region.

Cathy asks if the Contessa thinks there is anything missing from Bardolino.

I think the buses are really significant of the soul of a village. It tells you, is it organized? I think it is one of the things we are missing.

***

To read all five portraits of Bardolino:

1. Gianni Piccoli of Corte Gardonihttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/23/portraits-of-bardolino-1-gianni-piccoli-corte-gardoni/

2. Matilde Poggi of Le Fraghehttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/27/portraits-of-bardolino-2-matilde-poggi-le-fraghe/

3. Carlo Nerozzi of Le Vigne di San Pietrohttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/30/portraits-of-bardolino-3-carlo-nerozzi-le-vigne-di-san-pietro/

4. Contessa Maria Cristina Rizzardi of Guerrieri Rizzardihttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/05/04/portraits-of-bardolino-4-contessa-maria-cristina-loredan-rizzardi-guerrieri-rizzardi/

5. Angelo Peretti, Director of the Bardolino DOC, and The Internet Gourmethttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/05/07/portraits-of-bardolino-5-angelo-perreti-the-internet-gourmet/

Copyright 2015 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com.

1

Portraits of Bardolino

At the end of the 1970s, Sergio and Franca Nerozzi decided to move their family from the city to the countryside between Lake Garda and Verona. In 1980, they moved into the home on the moranic hill of San Pietro that would become Le Vigne di San Pietro.

Though the family originally had no intention of making wine – both father Sergio, and son Carlo were architects – the property included an old field blend vineyard. Carlo would begin making wine.

Over time, the family would replant the vineyards. Today they produce classic wines of Bardolino – Custova, Chiaretto, and Bardolino – as well as a Cabernet-Merlot blend called Refola that is made by partially drying the Cabernet, and keeping the Merlot grapes fresh.

Following is a portion of the story that Carlo Nerozzi shared with us on our visit. He now owns Le Vigne di San Pietro. He spoke to us in English.

Carlo Nerozzi, Le Vigne di San Pietro

Carlo Nerozzi, Le Vigne di San Pietro

Carlo Nerozzi, Le Vigne di San Pietro, March 2015

We are on a moranic hill. There is a mix of stones, clay, sand, everything. Some stones from the Dolomites are in the ground here. They are all well draining soils. The area used to be a field blend, white and red.

We use no herbicide. We use cover crop – oat, peas – to feed nutrients to the soil. Our vines are all hand tend, and harvest.

If you think I am a producer, you are wrong because I am an architect. Making wine, it is a little different, but they say the wine is not bad. [smiling]

I don’t like to buy, only grow, so I make wine with only my grapes.

I am not a wine producer, as I told you. But it is not a joke. I am making wine. I come from another skill [architecture] but I have been doing it [making wine] for 35 years.

The style of San Pietro, from the beginning, is to be elegant, to age quite a long time, and with a good relation with the food. So, I am not looking for muscles, or sweet wine.

I prefer wine that can express itself slowly and deeply. I don’t know if I can do it but it is what I try to do for all the wines.

We ask him what type of architecture he used to do. 

My architecture was to restore old buildings, and also I started a group with the young people to do this skill.

Carlo has served as a mentor to many young people interested in architecture, and working in architecture, to help retain the skills of restoration in the extended community. 

Le Vigne di San Pietro Refola

He pours us his Chiaretto.

Of course Chiaretto is the most delicate wine, but we make it to have this mineral salty character. I think it is good to pair wine with food.

We begin tasting the Bardolino. 

With age, Corvina deepens in tone. It takes on treble notes, while keeping its light frame, and freshness.

He pours us the Refola. We ask him to discuss the wine. He decides to also pour us an early vintage, so we can better understand the wine, then he responds. 

It is special. When you dry the grapes, you need perfect grapes. We do not make it every year.

We begin tasting the wines with food. Carlo brings out a bottle of olive oil, and a bottle of vinegar for the salads. Then he explains that he made the vinegar. 

Some years ago, I made Pinot Noir. I don’t anymore. The last year, it was so good, I put all of it into vinegar. Good vinegar was better than bad vinegar was my idea.

The Pinot Noir vinegar is delicious. We all comment on it. 

We are enjoying the food, and spend time discussing where the ingredients are from, and how the food was made.

Wine writer, Paul Balke, comments, “In Italy, the most important cooking school is at home.” 

***

To read all five portraits of Bardolino:

1. Gianni Piccoli of Corte Gardonihttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/23/portraits-of-bardolino-1-gianni-piccoli-corte-gardoni/

2. Matilde Poggi of Le Fraghehttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/27/portraits-of-bardolino-2-matilde-poggi-le-fraghe/

3. Carlo Nerozzi of Le Vigne di San Pietrohttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/30/portraits-of-bardolino-3-carlo-nerozzi-le-vigne-di-san-pietro/

4. Contessa Maria Cristina Rizzardi of Guerrieri Rizzardihttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/05/04/portraits-of-bardolino-4-contessa-maria-cristina-loredan-rizzardi-guerrieri-rizzardi/

5. Angelo Peretti, Director of the Bardolino DOC, and The Internet Gourmethttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/05/07/portraits-of-bardolino-5-angelo-perreti-the-internet-gourmet/

Copyright 2015 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com.

0

Portraits of Bardolino

Matilde Poggi, owner-winemaker of Le Fraghe in Bardolino, was elected head of the Federazione Italiana Vignaioli Indipendenti ((FIVI) Italian Federation of Independent Grape Growers) in 2013.

The group was formed in 2008 to help secure agricultural legislation sustainable for independent grape growers. FIVI is supported by the larger group, Confédération Européenne des Vignerons Indépendants ((CEVI) European Confederation of Independent Winegrowers).

CIVI and its national subsidiaries are unique in Europe, specifically working for independent wine growers, rather than agriculture in general. FIVI includes 900 members from throughout Italy. France’s branch of CIVI includes 6000 members. CIVI as a whole includes 13,000 members.

As president of FIVI, Matilde Poggi has worked to build consortiums across Italy, and with leaders from countries throughout Europe in order to successfully lobby the European Lobby in Brussels for the sake of viticultural policy. Such lobbying has successfully shifted planting policies that better support long term wine quality, as well as economic health.

Poggi’s influence in this way cannot be underestimated. At the same time, she has built Le Fraghe into one of the most regarded wineries of Bardolino.

Following is part of the story she shared with us on our visit. She spoke with us in English.

Matilde Poggi, Le FragheMatilde Poggi, Le Fraghe

We asked Matilde to share an example of some of the issues CIVI-FIVI have focused on changing. 

We have worked on plantation rights. In Europe, you cannot plant where ever and when ever you want. There are planting rights established for vines. They can be used, or transferred, or bought, or sold, but they cannot be created.

A man in the Netherlands wanted to remove the rights program. We lobbied to keep controls. We want some controls to make sure to keep balance on not over planting.

In Italy, if you do not want to replant, you can sell to someone else that wants to. In France, you can plant, or replant, but you cannot sell the right. If you do not replant, you will lose it forever.

Some appellations do not allow any new plantings. In Valpolicella, the book is closed, in Brunello di Montelcino, in Barolo. In some parts of those areas, though, you can plant to other varieties, other types, but not to those that are closed.

Before, you could have Southern Italy rights and use them to plant in Northern Italy. Some areas could get over-planted by people from outside that region. Now there is some regional movement allowed, but it is controlled.

In January 2016, there will be a new plantation system.

We are lobbying for private sales on wine. In Italy, we cannot sell directly to private consumers and deliver it, as you can in the United States. We can sell it at the winery.

Because of tax differences, if you deliver it you need to pay a tax representative, which is very expensive. These are the tax laws. We are lobbying to make sure we can sell directly.

We begin tasting Matilde’s Bardolino. She opens the current release, 2013, and then shows us the 2008 and 2009, to illustrate how the wines age. Bardolino generally ages around 5 years. While the 2009 still carries some freshness, the 2008 is still drinkable but has passed its peak. 

Le Fraghe 2008 + 2009 Bardolino
Le Fraghe 2008 + 2009 Bardolino

The soils are very different here versus in Valpolicella. We have some of the same grape types, but soil differences.

Bardolino is 140 meters higher than Lake Garda. There are moranic soils. There it is stone soils. The elevation is 200-250 meters.

Matilde Poggi, Le Fraghe

We ask Matilde to discuss her winemaking history. 

2014 was not a happy harvest, not a happy vintage. It was very rainy all summer, very cold and very rainy. It was nice in September but too late to make ripe tannins. I do not think 2014 was very good for the reds. It was better for rosé and whites.

The next day we would visit the Bardolino Anteprima and have a comprehensive tasting of all the 2014 Chiaretto (rosé) made from the region. Many producers recognizing early the struggle of the 2014 for red wines chose to increase their rosé production and choose to make Bardolino from only the best blocks. The best of the 2014 Chiarettos show wonderful freshness, and concentration of flavor in a crisp, mouthwatering style. 

2014 was my 30th harvest. I started in 1994. It was not a good harvest. Neither was this one.

We ask her what she has seen change in the market for Bardolino.

We sell 60% of our wine abroad, to the United States, Scandinavia, Germany. It used to be the US was not very interested in Bardolino.

The US sales have been increasing because people are looking more and more for wine of this type — very fresh, with fruit, and easy to drink, with not much oak, not much alcohol.

The US market opened up in 2000. Now the US is more interested in organic wines.

She pours us the 2014 Le Fraghe Bardolino. 

Le Fraghe Bardolino

Le Fraghe 2014 + 2013 Bardolino

This wine, I think, shows my 30 years. Every year, I try to change something.

30 years, you could think is a long time, but it is not a long time in wine. We make wine only once a year. Wine, I think, goes very slow.

In these 30 years, I change first the training systems. Then, I start changing varieties.

In 2014, I had wanted to do some skin contact for a short time just one day but I could not because of the grape quality. So, I have to wait a year. I think wine, it is slow.

Matilde Poggi, Le Fraghe

We left Le Fraghe as the sun was close to setting. As I was taking this picture one of our friends moved at the last moment and cast a shadow. The shadow is unfortunate, but still I love the purity of her smile here. That purity captures her countenance, and the expression of her wines. 

I comment on the freshness and mineral tension of the wines, and we ask her to talk about her winemaking.

The freshness and mineral tension is distinctive of the soil, and climate of Bardolino. I prefer to use more corvina. The other grape types do not ripen as well.

We use indigenous yeast from our own vineyards, but not spontaneous. We make a small batch of fermentation from the site, then when we harvest, we inoculate with that.

We use very cold, very slow fermentation. With selected [commercial] yeast, it is very difficult to make temperatures not so high. With indigenous yeast it is much easier. To keep slow, and cold fermentation you have more complexity. There are fresher flavors with cooler temperatures.

We ask her to discuss her viticultural methods. 

Being organic – we just use sulphur and copper, and these do not affect your aromatics. With chemicals in the vineyard, grapes do not grow so well, and it affects the taste.

Now we are organic in winemaking and the vineyard. Only half the sulfites are allowed in organic winemaking as for conventional wines.

We have been organic in the cellar since 2012, and in the vineyard since 2009. Organic in the cellar is a new certification in the European Union since 2012. It is the first time the European Union is talking about vino biologica, organic in the cellar.

Le Fraghe was one of the first vineyards to become part of FIVI in 2008. I think it is a good thing. The group is just for winegrowers [so it understands what winegrowers need].

So, when they asked if I wanted to join the board, I said yes. Now I am president. It is for 3 years, until 2016.

***

To read all five portraits of Bardolino:

1. Gianni Piccoli of Corte Gardonihttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/23/portraits-of-bardolino-1-gianni-piccoli-corte-gardoni/

2. Matilde Poggi of Le Fraghehttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/27/portraits-of-bardolino-2-matilde-poggi-le-fraghe/

3. Carlo Nerozzi of Le Vigne di San Pietrohttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/30/portraits-of-bardolino-3-carlo-nerozzi-le-vigne-di-san-pietro/

4. Contessa Maria Cristina Rizzardi of Guerrieri Rizzardihttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/05/04/portraits-of-bardolino-4-contessa-maria-cristina-loredan-rizzardi-guerrieri-rizzardi/

5. Angelo Peretti, Director of the Bardolino DOC, and The Internet Gourmethttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/05/07/portraits-of-bardolino-5-angelo-perreti-the-internet-gourmet/

Copyright 2015 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com.

Portraits of Bardolino

The depth of a wine region inevitably hangs on its people. Traveling, then, I am listening as much to those we meet as I am tasting the wine.

March took me to the Lake Garda region of the Veneto to get to know Bardolino.

Gianni Piccoli of Corte Gardoni stands as a highly respected vintner in the Bardolino region. His work has focused on fighting homogenization of flavor and quality in the region’s wine.

While his grapes were sold for a few years to a local cooperative, Gianni was never satisfied with the wine they produced.

Additionally, cooperatives tended to push for the planting of international grape types. Until the end of the 1970s, vintners were legally forbidden from growing and selling Italian varieties. The push for international grape types was seen as a necessary economic strategy by the government.

Gianni was determined to retain the already established indigenous varieties. So, to keep his vines from disappearing into a morass of uninteresting wine, he began making wine himself in 1980.

Following is part of the story he shared with us on our visit. It has been translated from the Italian.

Gianni Piccoli, Corte Gardoni

Gianni Piccoli, Corte Gardoni

Gianni Piccoli, Corte Gardoni, March 2015

We are in the Southern most portion of the Bardolino DOC. It is less rocky. We have moranic soils.

The [white wine] Custova is a blend. It can have Trebbiano, Garganega, Tocai, Cortese, Chardonnay, Malvasia, Riesling. I was on the wine counsel. Trebbiano is not a very interesting grape, so I worked to reduce the portion. Now it can have more of the others.

Then, I found Tocai [Friulano] in the vineyard. It was in the garden. I had a discussion with a professor of the Wine Institute, and they said it is not Tocai. They have not found the DNA yet. We do not know what it is. It still grows in the garden.

I was the first one to do the sustainable system of farming in this region. It is almost organic. It is almost organic because we tend to do everything organic, but just in extreme cases, if it is needed, we might use low impact non-organic methods.

My wines have a tendency to improve with age. The minerality of all these wines is due to the moranic soils, and specifically in this location, and possibly also the methods of vinification.

The wines are all consistently around 12% alcohol. We work very hard for that.

With Bardolino, people talk about only up to 5 years of aging. That is because people used to focus too much on quantity and not on quality.

Gianni and Mattia Piccoli, Corte Gardoni

Gianni and Mattia Piccoli, Corte Gardoni, March 2015

Mattia, Gianni’s son, begins to add to the story.

My father started the winery in the 1980s, and he thought if he did not have a Cabernet, Merlot blend he would not survive. It was impossible.

My father started with 3000 bottles [of the Cabernet, Merlot blend], and now we produce 3000 bottles. Just like that – even. [He moves his hand in a flat motion through the air, then holds up 1 finger.] Just 1 hectare. The rest is local wines.

We grow 25 hectares total. 200,000 bottles.

Gianni returns to telling us his story. 

My parents and grandparents, my ancestors, were here and for them the fruit was the most important, not the wine. It went to the cooperative. I started the winery. The first year was 1980.

They had potatoes, corn for the livestock, and some vines. Even 50 years ago, it was like this. Sometimes they would have to postpone harvest of the grapes because they had to take in the corn for the livestock.

Many years ago, another winery, asked me if they could sell some of my Chiaretto. Their winery was well-known. I was not well-known. They did not have any rosé. So, I made it, and they sold it as theirs, but I also sold it as mine.

A famous enologist came and tasted my Chiaretto, and he said, I think there is a flaw in this Chiaretto but I cannot tell you what it is. 

So, I brought him to the other winery. They were embarrassed because they knew it was the same. I said, I think this man would like to taste your Chiaretto.

[laughing]

The enologist, he tasted it, and he said, ah! this is a good Chiaretto! but it was the same.

I did not tell him.

***

To read all five portraits of Bardolino:

1. Gianni Piccoli of Corte Gardonihttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/23/portraits-of-bardolino-1-gianni-piccoli-corte-gardoni/

2. Matilde Poggi of Le Fraghehttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/27/portraits-of-bardolino-2-matilde-poggi-le-fraghe/

3. Carlo Nerozzi of Le Vigne di San Pietrohttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/30/portraits-of-bardolino-3-carlo-nerozzi-le-vigne-di-san-pietro/

4. Contessa Maria Cristina Rizzardi of Guerrieri Rizzardihttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/05/04/portraits-of-bardolino-4-contessa-maria-cristina-loredan-rizzardi-guerrieri-rizzardi/

5. Angelo Peretti, Director of the Bardolino DOC, and The Internet Gourmethttp://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/05/07/portraits-of-bardolino-5-angelo-perreti-the-internet-gourmet/

Copyright 2015 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com.

0

The Wines of Ca Lojera

In March, Cathy Huyghe and I were lucky enough to enjoy dinner with Ambra and Franco Tiraboschi of Ca Lojera who produce beautiful wines from Lugana using only estate grown grapes.

The Lugana DOC sits directly south of Lake Garda straddling the Veneto and Lombardy regions of Italy. It is a small DOC that grows a little over 1000 hectares of vines.

Lugana white wines must be at least 90% Trebbiana di Lugana, also called Turbiana locally. This is the Verdicchio grape grown in Lugana’s chalky soils. It should be noted that Trebbiana, also known as Ugni Blanc, is a different grape variety. (The original post left that ambiguous. It has been clarified below.) Each of the Ca Lojera whites are 100% Turbiana.

Dinner at Ca Lojeradinner at Ca Lojera from left: Angelo Perreti, Fillipo Fillipi, Franco Tiraboschi, me, Ambra Tiraboschi, Paola Giagulli, photo taken by Cathy Huyghe, March 2015

Aged Ca Lojera wines are wonderful – full of life, freshness and viscosity both, with a mineral drive that ages towards infinity. The young wines masquerade as simply approachable. They can trick your palate into thinking the wine is merely quaffable, but there is subtlety to them worth investigating, that also fleshes into a special wine with age.

Even more, the people. It’s dinners like this that make everything else worthwhile. Angelo Peretti, the Internet Gourmet, kindly arranged the dinner for us. Fillipo Fillipi of Fillipi winery, and Paola Giagulli also joined us. A perfect group.

Following is a glimpse of the Ca Lojera story as told to us by Ambra and Angelo, who also served as our translators for the others, with snapshots from the evening.

Franco Tiraboschi, Ca Lojera

Franco Tiraboschi, March 2015

Ambra: Franco sold real estate. I was a hotel keeper there in Verona. We didn’t know anything about wine. in 1992 we bought the property to resell. The grapes were ripe but they sold for too little so Franco decided to make wine. Then he fell in love with wine.

Angelo: So they had no need to make wine. They could do what they wanted. It was a second career with much luck.

We begin dinner with a 2008 Turbiana Spumante.

Ambra: The 2008 Turbiana had too much acid so Franco made sparkling with it. He made all of it sparkling. Franco is incapable of doing anything small. Only a small wife. Nothing else. [laughing]

The sparkling wine does not say Lugana on the label. Cathy and I ask about it. There is laughing all around as they answer. 

Ambra: Franco does not like regulations. Bureaucracy he does not like. He must make things when he wants to.

Angelo: The spumante is not registered Lugana. Franco forgot to do the paperwork.

sitting with Franco Tiraboschi

sitting beside Franco Tiraboschi, photo by Cathy Huyghe

We begin to discuss what wines we will open.

Angelo: They are the only producer in Lugana that can offer a lot of vintages of Lugana because they did not sell it. They did not realize how to sell it at first.

Ambra: We needed a lot of time to realize how to sell.

Angelo: So now they have a lot of old vintages and people come here to buy because white Lugana ages in a wonderful way.

Ambra: 1992 our first commercial vintage. 1999 the oldest we sell now.

The food begins to be served. We begin with mixed salumi and vegetables. One of my favorite moments with Angelo happens as a result. The simple passion of it gives window to his character. With it I also learn something about cured meats that makes sense as soon as he says it but I wouldn’t have realized. 

Angelo: It is very important to have salumi by hands. You can feel how sweet it is by your hands. The smoother it is, the sweeter it is. You must try it with two slices. One with your hands. One with a knife. And they will taste different.

I follow Angelo’s advice. The creamy salt of the salumi goes perfectly with the fresh chalkiness of the sparkling wine. We return to discussing Ca Lojera history. 

Ambra: I worked in the fields with Franco for 17 years. Then it was necessary for someone to sell the wines. So, we decided he would stay here in the winery, and I travel to sell the wine. I do not like it but it is necessary. Usually once a month, I go somewhere.

Ca Lojera wines

We open several vintages of Ca Lojera. A 2002 Superiore, a 2003 Riserva del Lupo, alongside a 2011 Superiore, and a 2011 Riserva del Lupo. 

Angelo: Old Lugana are very mineral. They have a smell of petrol. They are lighter in structure. Young Lugana are more fruity. In my opinion, the 2003 is the best Lugana ever produced but I do not say I love the wine. It is not love that I have for the wine because love can end.

I taste the 2003. It is wonderful. Emotionally overwhelming with beautiful balance of fresh fruit and petrol, a persistent spice. Notes that are almost waxy with mixed yellow fruit, star fruit and a fresh lake breeze finish. There is a hint of sweetness but only a hint. This is a wine that has a lot to say. I agree with Angelo that it is beautiful.

Angelo: The 2003 describes this land, this territory in a better way. In the 2003 Lupo, I identify Lugana. It was a horrible vintage. A hot vintage. But It tastes Lugana. In the worst vintages, Crus emerge.

Franco nods and explains the 2002 of the older wines is his favorite but he really likes the younger wines. He likes the freshness and the fruit. He believes the 2011 Riserva del Lupo is a special wine that will have a lot to say. I comment that the wines are full of life. Angelo agrees.

Angelo: I love humanity behind wines. I taste that here.

Cathy asks Franco how his winemaking has developed since he started. 

Angelo translating for Franco: My way of making wine has not changed. Something has changed and it is in the vines. There are better practices taking care of the vines.

Angelo: He changes. He has a wider oenological and agricultural culture. Now he knows the temperatures he prefers.

Angelo translating for Franco: Yes, the cooler the better. I like to have very slow fermentation so I decline the temperature. Because the lower the temperature, the slower the fermentation, the better the wine.

Sitting next to Ambra Tiraboschi

sitting beside Ambra Tiraboschi, March 2015, photo by Cathy Huyghe

Ambra agrees. She used to make the wines with Franco and comments on what she learned from 17 years in the vineyard and cellar.

Ambra: We had a consulting winemaker for a while. He said, fermentation is the most difficult part of winemaking. It’s true. If you do not know how to hear the fermentation, if you cannot hear the music of the fermentation, you will never make a personal wine.

Copyright 2015 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com.

I Rosati di deGusto Salento a Lazise per l’anteprima Chiaretto Bardolino

Earlier this month I traveled to Garda Lake in Italy’s Veneto to attend the Bardolino Anteprima. My main focus for the event, however, was in tasting the current releases of Rosati.

This year’s Anteprima brought a celebration of rosé made from Indigenous Italian varietals. With this in mind Chiaretto, from the Bardolino region’s grape Corvina, was poured. The Bardolino Consortium also invited the winemakers of Salento Rosato, rosé from Puglia’s Negroamaro. We were lucky enough to taste all of the current releases of both Salento Rosato and Chiaretto.

Italian media, I Move Puglia.TV, attended the Bardolino Anteprima and interviewed journalists on their impression of the wines. After finishing the comprehensive rosati tastings, they asked me to describe both wines — first the Salento, and then Chiaretto.

Here’s the interview.

Thank you to Francesca Angelozzi and Gianluca Lubelli for including me.

For more from I Move Puglia.TV check out their over view video here, with links to the other interviews: http://www.imovepuglia.tv/video/308-i-rosati-di-degusto-salento-a-lazise-per-l-anteprima-chiaretto-bardolino

0

Nonino Grappa Cocktails

Gritti Palace Hotelthe bar at the Gritti Palace, Venice

Fall’s cooler weather, and aromatic breezes proves a perfect time to shift to warming aromatic cocktails. Part of the Nonino project instigated by the three daughters has been working with mixologists around the world to create unique cocktails using the Nonino distillates.

The monovarietal grappas, and grape distillates by Nonino offer a unique opportunity to play with distinct varietal characteristics. Their distillation process captures grape aromatics in what Giannola Nonino calls “a crystalline purity.” The flavors of each grappa reflects the character of the grape type used, with warmer blue floral notes lifting from the glass in the merlot distillate, and distinctly yellow flower and warm hay aromas for the chardonnay. Nonino’s first monovarietal, picolit, remains my favorite.

The Gioiello, their honey distillate made from acacia honey, too carries trademark flavors of autumn. It’s a beautifully nutty, forest floral aromatic that’s both warming, and spiced on the palate. A lovely sipping cocktail on its own.

Nonino, of course, also makes a tasty amaro that’s great over ice, or in a cocktail as shown below.

While visiting Venice last year we were able to meet several mixologists who were kind enough to share their recipes with me for three of my favorite Nonino cocktails. Each of the three recipes following are easy enough to make at home, and perfect for Fall weather with flavors of apple, rose, and herbal infusions.

(Some of the drinks they showcased brilliantly involved infused aromatic tea smoke, and other complicated ingredients. I don’t keep a vaporizer at home.)

 

Nonino Frozen, Mixologist Davide Girardi, Udine

Mixologist Davide GirardiMixologist Davide Girardi

Nonino Frozen
Mixologist Davide Girardi, Udine

5 cl Amaro Nonino Quintessentia
Soda Water
1 lime
cane sugar
2 mint leaves

Muddle and pound 1/4 of a lime with 2 spoonfuls of cane sugar.
Fill a glass with crushed ice, and Amaro Nonino Quintessentia, and top it up with soda water.
Mix it energetically in the glass in which it is to be served, and decorate it with mint leaves.

Passion Nonino, Barman Mirko Falconi, Gritti Palace, Venice

DSC_0383Barman Mirko Falconi in the library of the Gritti Palace

Passion Nonino
Barman Mirko Falconi, Gritti Palace, Venice

3 cl Grappa Nonino Cru Monovitigno Fragolino
1.5 cl white Cinzano
0.5 cl Aperol
1 cl passion fruit juice
1 cl rose syrup

Shake all ingredients except for the grappa.
Once shaken, pour in a mixing glass,add ice, and the grappa.
Stir slowly and serve in a chilled cocktail glass.
Decorate with peels of apple, melon, and pumpkin.

This cocktail is a lot of fun to play with switching up which flavor of the monovarietal grappa, and what type of fruit juice too. For example, the Picolit grappa works well with pineapple juice.

Nonino Cool, Head Barman Gennaro Florio, VeniceHead Barman Gennaro Florio Gennaro Florio, Venice

Nonino Cool
Head Barman Gennaro Florio

4cl Grappa Nonino Cru Monovitigno Fragolino
3cl Sour Apple liqueur
1 Tbsp blossom honey
drops of squeezed lime

Caramelize seasonal fruit (apple works well) in Grappa Nonino Monovitigno Moscato and cane sugar to use as garnish.

Shake all ingredients, and fill without ice into a cocktail glass.
Garnish with caramelized fruit.

Cheers!

Copyright 2014 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com

1

Listening to Giannola Nonino

A year ago a few of us were lucky enough to share two days with the Nonino family. The Noninos are the most well known grappa producers in Italy, known for a series of innovations in production that succeeded in raising the status of grappa worldwide.

While Benito Nonino distilled the grappa, his wife Giannola developed many of the ideas, and packaging that helped raised Benito’s work to such prominence. Today their three daughters are thoroughly involved in running Nonino, and have gone on to continue the tradition of innovation and quality. After working on it for a decade, the three daughters succeeded at figuring out how to distill honey, for example.

If you don’t already know how grappa is made, you can check out my Behind the Scenes at Nonino piece over at Serious Eats, here

While with the Nonino family, Cathy Huyghe and I asked Giannola to share more of her story. Jeremy Parzen translated. The following is a transcript of her story as translated by Jeremy. She begins by speaking of her family history as the foundation of the work she did for Nonino, as well as for how she raised their children.

Giannola’s Family

Ginola Nonino“It’s really important to start this story by telling the education I received from my parents. My father was very learned, well read. They were children of immigrants.

“My grandfather, at the end of the 19th c. immigrated to Argentina from Italy. He was part of a big wave of immigration to Argentina. My father was born in Argentina, then came back to Italy. At the end of the 19th c. a lot of people went hungry in Friuli. There was a lot of suffering. My grandfather left Cividale all by himself.

“Thanks to the priest from Cividale he met his wife. He went to the priest in Argentina and said, I want to get married. I am in Argentina. I want to marry a nice girl with her head on her shoulders. The priest in Argentina wrote to a priest in Cividale. So thanks to the priest from Cividale, and another in Argentina, all by letter, he found a wife.

“He had gone to Argentina so he would put food on the table. You got off the boat in Argentina and they gave you a plow. They said, you can pick land. You put stakes around the land, and work as much as you want.

“My grandma left Italy without knowing anything about this person. They would meet at the other side of the journey, and when she said goodbye to family she didn’t know if she would ever see them again. This is what hunger and poverty did to people. They were forced to make such decisions.

“My grandfather was successful, and finally able to come back to Friuli with my father. At the time my father was 25 years old. He opened a small factory, made plows, and farming equipment. My father for this reason was a great lover of this land.

“He bought land in Percoto, Italy. At that point, my father had a company with 60 workers. At the same time, my father was a very sensitive person, and well read. He began to study customs, and traditions of Friuli. From the time I was very little we were going out and learning about Friuli tradition. That’s how as a young child I learned about indigenous grape varieties of the area.”

Giannola Nonino helped to preserve, and reestablish farming of indigenous varieties in Friuli. They had been illegal, and her work with farmers, and outreach to politicians helped instigate legal changes that supported the reestablishment of indigenous varieties in the region.

To further this cause she conceived of the Nonino Prize for those growing indigenous grape varieties. Paolo Rapuzzi of Ronchi di Cialla famously won the Nonino Prize for his saving Schioppettino by hunting feral vines in the hills along the Friuli-Slovenia border.

Giannola Nonino“My parents taught us how to behave in the world. We were raised not to just be frivolous girls in the world. Our identity was in our intelligence, and how we conveyed our intelligence. We were determined our projects should be conceived without hurting anyone, and we knew we could overcome any obstacle. Never give up.

“I was not a good mother. I was severe. I would try to give them what they wanted but there were rules, and they needed to follow. They had to be good at school, to study. They had to be obedient, and from when they were very little they would get in the truck with me, and we would look for pomace [to make grappa]. But from third grade, they never went to bed without me checking their homework.

“The first thing to give your children is affection. The most important thing is affection. But then you have to teach them how to respect themselves, and how to respect others. You have to do well in school, and you have to play, and when you grow up you should do a job you really enjoy because if you don’t enjoy it it’s going to weigh on you.

“I know I love my children more than anything in the world but I never lost track that they would respect themselves, and respect others. As a mother you want to give them everything but you have to teach your children that anything they receive takes a lot of energy. Other people have put a lot of energy into whatever it is we have.

“My father is the one that gave the knowledge of our land, and the love of our culture to me. But above all he valued keeping alive all of this knowledge because otherwise the cost is the loss of our identity. Just like what she does.” Giannola points to me referencing an earlier conversation, “sending her daughter back to Alaska where her whole family is from. Otherwise all of these roots would just die in the street.

“In a society like we are living now, in the entire world, this is the foundation of this loss of security our children have, this loss of knowledge.

“That is my advice. Convey to your children that knowledge of your land, and your people. It is without this knowledge we cannot live like real people. It is without this that we fight and we kill each other. It is with this knowledge we live as real people.

” I believe my father, as the son of an immigrant who became an immigrant himself is someone who, the values are even stronger in him.

“What I give to my children, and what my grandparents give to me, the knowledge of family, is the most valuable thing we can have.

Growing Nonino Grappa

DSC_0424“First I fell in love with my husband, Benito, then I fell in love with his job. I call it the art of distillery. I hope you have felt the same emotion I felt the first time I watched distillation happening. From that moment I wanted to learn how to distill. It is a magical thing to take the grape, and turn it into a crystalline distillate of the grape.

“The first of December 1973 we made the first monovarietal distillate of Picolit. At noon sharp on that first of December 1973 as the first drops of the grappa came, I drew them to my nose, and I knew our experiment had succeeded.”

Nonino was the first in history to make monovarietal grappa. Winemaking in the region previously made mixed white wine, and mixed red wine without separating grape types. Because grappa is made with the grape pommace, after the wine is pressed from the skins, the material available depended on the style of winemaking already established.

Making a single varietal grappa in order to celebrate the varieties indigenous to the region was Giannola’s idea. She worked with farmer’s wives through the region, offering to pay them in addition to paying the husbands for the grapes in order to secure pommace separated by grape type. 

Prior to Nonino’s innovations with monovarietal grappa, grappa was seen only as a worker’s distillate, not as a drink for finer tables. Giannola also worked to change that attitude.

“It occurred to me at that time that consumers that had a snobby attitude about grappa, they needed to taste this grappa. If we sold it as a normal grappa, they would have refused to taste it. At that time we did not even talk about marketing or talk about packaging. I realized if I put it into a refined container that would make the consumer curious. Then they would taste it, and fall in love with it.

“So we put the grappa in the old medicinal style bottles, and had the label that described which grape variety and its qualities, and the bottles were individually numbered as well, and it was like the bottle had an ID card as well that came with it. All of these qualities together gave our grappa the right to be considered top quality. The packaging was just a means to an end, teaching the public about the quality of our grappa.

“In 1975 we created the Nonino Prize in order to save indigenous grape varieties of Friuli. It was forbidden at that time to grow them. From 1975 to 8 we worked to save, rescue those varieties. Then the law changed, and it became a literary prize. The literary prize started as a way to document realities of farm life in Friuli. Industrial culture may die, but the death of rural farming culture would also be the death of all humanity.”

The Nonino familythe Nonino Family, from left: Giannola, Cristina, Antonella, Elisabeta, Benito Nonino

“My daughters were with me even during the night. My daughters were born in the pommace. All we did was talk about grappa grappa grappa. They fell in love with work.

“Benito and I traveled through the best places for wine in Europe. We decided to make an artisanal distillery for our daughters so whenever the need arose, our daughters would know how to distill because they did it with their own hands. That is when we invented the UE grape distillate, a distillate from skin, and juice, and pulp, and grapes. The UE has the elegance of wine, the aromas and characters and flavors of skins.”

Grappa is made with grape pommace, that is after the wine has been pressed off the skins, what is left is distilled into grappa. The Noninos were the first to distill the entire grape in what they call their UE.

“In 2000, our daughters, so that they would not be outdone by their parents created honey distillate, Gioiello, which was extremely difficult. It was a huge victory for them to prove to themselves that they could achieve the same greatness as their parents.

“As a woman, I always had to battle because I was so determined, and I knew the high quality of grappa my husband produced. I decided we were going to make my husband the greatest distillate in the world. So, in the mid-1960s I started a battle to transform grappa from Cinderella to a quality distillate. I did it thanks to my determination, and especially because my husband is the best distiller in the world.

“He has such intimate knowledge of the raw material, and created a special still to preserve the aromas and flavors, and he is never entirely satisfied, always to make it better and better. I believe one of the qualities that helped us transform, the number one thing we were hoping to achieve was never perfect but the attainment of absolute quality of the best grappa.

“My first trip to New York, I did not speak English, and had no translator but wanted to tell my story. So in front of a mirror I memorized the story in English, and I understood the expression I had to make. I practiced again and again, and it was a great success.

“These were the grapes my father taught me to love. I had to preserve them, or I would have betrayed the values my father taught me to love. Twenty years later, our daughters, we have given them the value of our land, and they have become even more rigorous.

“My story is a story of passion. If I was born again, I would do it the same again.”

Copyright 2014 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com

2

RIP Paolo Rapuzzi

My good friend Jeremy Parzen was kind enough to let me know this morning that Paolo Rapuzzi passed on. His blog post about Paolo is here. In April 2012, several of us spent lunch and part of an afternoon with Paolo, his wife Dina, and their two sons. Paolo showered us with stories of them beginning Ronchi di Cialla, one of my favorite wineries of Italy. Then we walked the vineyards with their son Ivan, who runs things now with his brother.

Paolo and Dina together rescued indigenous Friulian varieties, some of which had been thought extinct. Most particularly, they re-discovered Schioppettino from feral vines in the hillsides along the Slovenian border. The primary clone of Schioppettino, taken from their vineyard, is named Rapuzzi in their honor. Many of the local varieties at the time were going extinct through the region largely because of the ongoing impact of wars, and the governments exclusion of them for economic regions. I could go on and on about what meeting them, and their work means to me. (If you ask my friends, I occasionally do that with them in person.) Instead, I’m going to repost Paolo’s story told to us by him during our visit that April.

originally posted April 11, 2012

Lunch at Ronchi di Cialla: Meeting the Man with whom it Began

Paolo Rapuzzi standing on Ronchi di CiallaPaolo Rapuzzi, the founder and owner of Ronchi di Cialla

“The story of the winery is very simple. I am Friulian. So, when it came time to plant, we planted the grapes of the region. The ancient varieties.

“I had been working for a very big company. But we [he and his wife] spoke. We asked, should we die as typewriter sales people? Should we live in a system we don’t like? We didn’t like having someone bossing us around. The only person that can work without a boss is a farmer. So, on January 30, 1970 we started. They talked us into buying this land.

“I am not a farmer by history of profession, and we had no land. We began looking. They talked us into buying this land. It had been abandoned for 25 years, since the end of World War II. This is only 2 kilometers from the [Slovenian] border, so life in this area was very hard during the war. When it was over the family packed up and left. The house and vineyard had been abandoned for 25 years. Inside the house was grass waist deep and badgers were living in it. But we liked it a lot because there were olive trees here. Even it was abandoned we knew it was the right place to begin our new life.

A consummate story teller, Paolo Rapuzzi“My two sons had been born already. Luckily they decided to follow my footsteps. They handle the estate now and studied farming at university and handle both the grape growing and wine making.

“When I started I had no experience. So, I had no preconceived notions in what I was doing. That is what most helped me do what I ended up doing [on the farm and with wine making]. I never studied wine making and have never had an oenologist. We wanted to make wine from here, from Cialla. Some do not agree, but the grape already has everything it needs to make wine. So, the less we try to force grapes, the more its product represents wine from the area. We are meticulously involved in the entire process from growing to wine but it is very much about what we do not do than what we do. Nature has everything it needs to make wine.

“We planted in 1970. From the beginning it has been indigenous grape varieties, native yeast, no chemical farming, low intervention wine making.”

Paolo and Ivan RapuzziPaolo and Dina’s son Ivan adds a comment: “We make truly long lived wines. All of our wines–the whites, the reds, the sweet wines–all of them age very well. That is an indication that it is from the zone. It is the land itself that makes these wines.”

Paolo continues: “When phylloxera came the farmers made a mistake. Not everyone agrees with me. They began planting foreign grape varieties. We lost over 150 indigenous grape varieties. It is an indication of how viticulture changes. Today we are getting it back. More people are dedicated to the indigenous varieties.”

Ivan comments: “Friuli is one of the places in Europe with the greatest bio-diversity. It is the intersection of the Alps, the Adriatic from the Mediterranean, and the Balkans. The Northern and Eastern Alps too come together here so you are at a real crux of the Mediterranean, with the Northern and Eastern Alps.”

Later Paolo tells a story: “In the beginning we were infested with red spiders. It was a problem. We went to a phyto-pathologist for advice. He told us, don’t do anything. If you leave the spiders another type of spider will come along and compete. So, we left the red spiders. It was a big risk. But yellow spiders came and killed the red spiders. When you use pesticides you do not just kill what you are targeting. You kill everything. But nature will balance itself if you do not do this.”

Outside Ivan walks us through the vineyards and tells us more about their low intervention views. “In Cialla, proximity to Forest is the most important. The same predators that attack vitis vinifera [grape vines] attack other species in the forest. But in the forest they have natural enemies. Nature keeps a balance. So, in being close to the forest we do not have to intervene because the same balance that is in the forest is maintained in the vineyard too.”

***

Thank you to Jeremy Parzan for translating Paolo’s story to us as he spoke.

***

Paolo Rapuzzi, thank you for all you have done. Rest in peace.

Copyright 2014 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com