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Langmeil The Freedom 1843 Shiraz

Langmeil The Freedom 1843 Vertical Tasting

click on image to enlarge

The world’s oldest still-producing Shiraz vineyard, The Freedom 1843, grows in Barossa near the North Para River. Planted in 1843, with a bit added in 1886, the vines root into alluvial loam and red clay over limestone mixed through with ironstone. Today, 3.5 acres remain of the site.

The old vines survive today thanks to the attention of the Lindner family of Langmeil winery who purchased and resuscitated the site in the mid-1990s. Entirely dry farmed, with deep roots, the vines naturally produce fruit with concentration, firm while supple tannin and mouthwatering acidity.

Langmeil winemakers, Paul Lindner and Tyson Bitter choose to take a hands on, rather minimalist approach to producing wine from The Freedom 1843 vineyard. As such, they also only bottle it as a vineyard designate wine in good vintages (the first bottled in 1997) in order to preserve a sense of site integrity. With only 3.5 acres of the old vines remaining, when produced The Freedom 1843 remains a small production bottling.

The Freedom 1843 wine is made to age, ideally kept in bottle for several years before opening.

Recently I was able to enjoy a four vintage vertical of The Freedom 1843 Shiraz (unfortunately, the 2010 was corked). Following are notes on the four vintages, as illustrated above.

The Freedom 1843 – generally kept 24 months in all-French oak (of varying sizes) before bottling then kept around two years in bottle before release.

2002 – Delicious and sophisticated with nice movement through the palate, the 2002 offers richness housed in a supple mouthfeel with nice focus and a good frame. There is lovely poise here – a strong wine with the balance to stand on point. Showing notes of black and red fruit nose to finish with accents of spiced leather and tobacco leaf, and a band of cedar throughout. The 2002 carries slightly dry fruit currently. Drink soon.

2004 – Showing nuance and complexity with a depth of concentration, the 2004 offers the combination of poise in richness possible from old vines. Offering savory elements throughout a body of dark, earthy fruit and a through-line of cedar, this wine carries notes of tobacco and mint with chocolate and pepper through the finish. Rich and supple with firm tannin and an ultra long finish.

2006 – With a sense of freshness and a stimulating mineral element of wet river rock rolled through saline, the 2006 offers nuance in the midst of richness. The 2004 revels in dark tones – dark while fresh, juicy fruit, deep forest accents, and deep bass notes – carried by mouth clenching acidity through an ultra long finish.

2012 – Under screwcap. Full of energy, pretty and poised, the 2012 brings freshness and exotic perfume to a bright palate of red fruit. With notes of mixed blossom, cedar and a wash of wet river rocks, the 2012 looks to develop its richness in the bottle. This is a vintage meant to age with a nice structural focus and mouthwatering acidity.

***

Thank you to Penelope Goodsall.

Copyright 2015 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com.

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Torbreck RunRig: An icon of the Barossa Valley

Australia‘s Barossa Valley rose to prominence in the mid 1990s. Primarily known for its Shiraz, the region was celebrated for a combination of flavor concentration, supple tannin and mouthwatering acidity. Robert Parker‘s attention on the wines of the region ushered in a new era for the Barossa complete with a rush of new plantings and the advent of exports to the United States. The changes included too the possibility for more hands on attention to wine quality and a rise of boutique level wine producers and iconic wines.

Iconic among them stands Torbreck‘s flagship wine, the RunRig.

Like many of the Barossa’s top wines, the RunRig is an assemblage, blending from multiple sites across the Valley. Torbreck roots its winemaking primarily in the assemblage approach, offering only four single vineyard wines, with the belief that blending across microclimates allows them to showcase the best of the Barossa Valley through the production of more complete wines. In the case of the four single vineyard wines — The Descendent; The Laird (delicious); The Pict (my favorite); and Les Amis — the Torbreck team found that completeness in the site itself.

With the goal of showcasing the range of the Barossa Valley while exploring how we experience a sense of place in assemblage style wines, Torbreck decided to offer RunRig components’ tastings for the first time with their 2012 vintage. The tasting included the 2012 RunRig itself alongside six vineyard specific wines included in the final RunRig blend but also bottled in small quantities on their own only for the components’ tasting.

Torbreck RunRig Components Tasting

Torbreck 2012 RunRig Components Tasting

click on image to enlarge

The Barossa Valley as a region stands similar in size to the Napa Valley, with 11 subregions within regarded each as a unique microclimate. Sites from six of those microclimates are brought together to produce the RunRig assemblage.

Torbreck bottles RunRig only in the best of vintages, wishing to preserve its role as their flagship wine in terms of quality as well as prominence. In the year 2000, for example, the weather proved both too hot and too cold for even ripening; 2008, too hot; 2011 too wet. 2012, however, was regarded as a normal vintage in terms of temperatures with a dry growing season coming after a wealth of rain before it. The conditions, then, proved an advantage with vines having ample water while fruit remained relatively disease free.

The 2012 RunRig includes a blend of six vineyard sites each grown in a different microclimate of the Barossa Valley, as well as 2% Viognier from the 2014 vintage to lift the aromatics and stabilize the color. It spent 13 months in 55% new French oak. Following are descriptions on the wine and its individual components (named by microclimate), as illustrated in the drawing above.

RunRig – With notes of dark fruit carried by a bright lift and hints of dried blossom, the RunRig offers accents of molasses, sweet baking spice and a nip of ruby red grapefruit. This is a young wine enveloped by structure and a bit of baby fat. The 2012 offers supple tannin with mouthwatering acidity, a long finish and the stuffing to age.

The Components:

Lyndoch – Lyndoch’s Hillside Vineyard serves as 35-40% of the RunRig blend. Originally planted in the 1890s, the site grows from rich red clay over limestone mixed through with ironstone and quartz. Torbreck has been shifting the site to biodynamic farming.

Offering concentrated red and black fruit with a floral lift, the Lyndoch carries fine while dense tannin and high tone acidity with drive. Of the components, the Lyndoch seems the most complete on its own and could serve as an individually bottled wine.

Rowland Flat – The Phillipou Vineyard in Rowland Flat composes 15% of the RunRig blend. Planted in the late 1800s, the site gently slopes, grown in sand over yellow clay.

With herbal accents and a mix of cigar, smoke, and salt the Rowland Flat carries concentrated and lush black fruit and molasses. This component is all about concentration, with less backbone than the Lyndoch while still showing ample length.

Seppeltsfield – The Renshaw Vineyard in Seppelsfield offers the youngest vine component of RunRig carrying 10% of the final blend. With its natural richness and concentration, the Seppeltsfield fruit is housed entirely in new French oak. Planted in the 1960s, the Renshaw soils are red clay loam over sandstone with a sprinkle of ironstone mixed through.

With the darkest, richest notes of the components, the Seppeltsfield offers notes of coffee, blackened toast, bloody meat and olive brine accented through by sweet spice. This wine includes ample tannin and an ultra long finish.

Greenock – Planted in the 1860s, the Materne Vineyard of Greenock proves the oldest vineyard component of the RunRig. It is also one of the highest altitude sites of the components. The Materne soils are a shallow, sandy loam over yellow clay. RunRig includes 8-9% of the Greenock.

Carrying black fruit and notes of squid ink with graphite, the Greenock carriess vibrant intensity with fruit sweetness, dense tannin and a lot of persistence.

Moppa – The Moppa Vineyard was one of Torbreck’s first at its start in the mid-1990s. It was also one of the first selected to be part of the RunRig blend. Planted at the start of the 1900s, Moppa is grown in sandy loam over terrarossa red earth with bands of ironstone.

Full of sweet, dark fruit, terra-cotta dustiness, and iron accents, the Moppa includes lots of concentration with powdery, dense tannin, and tons of mouth stimulation. The acidity here is moderate but a mineral-sapidity throughout waters the palate into a medium-long finish.

Ebenezer – The Dimchurch Vineyard of Ebenezer composes 25% of the final blend and is the most Northerly of Torbreck’s sites. Planted at the start of the 1900s, the Dimchurch site grows in red and brown earth over dark red clays with a layer of chalky limestone.

With sweet fruit in a mix of frozen raspberries and fig, the Ebenezer includes salty brine accents and pepper hints throughout its robust and spicy frame. There is a lot of complexity to this component with a touch of caramel and ruby red grapefruit accents on strong tannin with good density.

***

With thanks to Dan Fredman.

Copyright 2015 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com.

Sonoma’s Far Coast

Wine & Spirits 0915We step out of the forest into a glade where light pours through. Ted Lemon has guided me to the top of a hill at 1,200 feet of elevation in The Haven. He has been farming half of this ten-acre property since 2001, using biodynamic methods, and he left half of the land wild.

“This is why it’s called The Haven,” he says of Littorai’s estate vineyard. The surrounding forest and coastal scrub provides animal habitat to foster biodiversity. Behind us, pinot noir, chardonnay, and chenin blanc grow from a mix of shale, iron sands, compressed clay and serpentine.

These hills are part of Sonoma’s coastal mountains, most of which remain covered in conifers, too steep for cultivation. Vineyards have only arrived in the last 30 years, almost all planted in the 1990s or later on the gentler slopes and hilltops. (Until 1994, when Williams Selyem, Kistler and Littorai came knocking, even David Hirsch’s now sought-after fruit was going to Kendall-Jackson for blending.)

To keep reading this article, you’ll have to purchase a copy of Wine & Spirits Magazine’s current edition: Fall 2015. Inside you’ll find a special focus on Classic Wines – past, present, and future. The issue includes a look at already recognized classics, like older Napa Cabernet, the Douro, or Bordeaux, as well as emerging classics, like Tasmania, Leyda, or, as in my article shown above, Sonoma’s far coast pinot. 

It’s also exciting to say that Gerald Asher picked up his pen to contribute to the Fall issue. He’s my wine writing hero. I couldn’t be more excited than appearing in the same magazine as him. 

For more information on the current edition of Wine & Spirits check it out here: http://www.wineandspiritsmagazine.com/S=0/subscriptions/entry/fall-2015

 

Corison Cabernet 25-year Anniversary Prints

Cathy Corison 25 Year Anniversary Prints

with Cathy Corison after signing 150 art prints at her winery

With the release of her 2011 vintage, Cathy Corison celebrated the 25-year anniversary of her Napa Valley Cabernet. Earlier this year she hosted a 25-vintage vertical tasting of the wine. Lucky enough to be part of the tasting, I illustrated the experience as a 19″ x 24″ art piece representing the relationship of the wine across vintages and delineating notes on each vintage as well.

After multiple requests, the piece has now been printed as a limited edition release. 150 prints were made. 45 are available for sale via my Etsy shop. No additional prints will be made and the image will not be sold in any other form (no t-shirts or posters).

The print has been done on archival quality paper worthy of framing with the detail of the hand drawn original. Each print is hand signed and numbered by both myself, the artist, and Cathy Corison, the winemaker.

Cathy Corison signing prints of her 25-vintage vertical tasting

Cathy Corison signing 150 prints

To order an art print, please visit my Etsy shop here.

Details for shipping are listed there.

This Corison vertical drawing was not commissioned by Corison winery, nor have I been paid in any way by Cathy Corison or her winery for this piece. 

In Gratitude, For Tom, with thanks to Karen

“The days I keep my gratitude higher than my expectations, I have really good days.” – Ray Wylie Hubbard

Paul and Anna Chukan, my great grandparents

Paul and Anna Chukan, my maternal great grandparents. Photo by my sister, Melanie Brown

I’ve spoken before about my life change. In 2010 I won a year long research fellowship at Dartmouth College. I’d done doctoral work at McGill University in Montreal and had a professor position in philosophy at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff. Dartmouth paid me to work in residence on the projects I already had in place. My presence there was meant to support my own work as much as it was to enlarge the already vibrant conversation occurring at Dartmouth through outside influence. While there I contracted pneumonia. At its worst I couldn’t stand and speak at the same time. I visited the emergency room three times, and went through three rounds of antibiotics before recovering two months later. In the midst of it I realized it was time for me to leave academia. I’d devoted my entire adult life and a doctoral program to that career but recognizing the need to leave, I gave myself a year to get out gracefully. I assumed I’d have a new career in place by the end of the year. I returned to Northern Arizona University to do one more year teaching in a town I loved.

The day I turned in the keys to my office and my final grades, thus closing my contract at Northern Arizona University, my daughter, Rachel, was in Alaska visiting our family. The house was empty. I returned home having left academia for the last time and sat on the couch. The house was silent. It was winter so the light was low. And I was alone with no plans before me. I had begun drawing my wine illustrations but did not yet know that would become the basis of a strange new career. At Dartmouth I recognized a path of academic life blazing before me clear and bright. I’d established myself in that profession in a way that delivered clear options before me. Now, it was as if I stood in an open field. No path or trail cut of direction reaching to the horizon. Nothing leading before me. No others standing beside me. No guidance. The terror of that moment was profound. I felt there was nothing to do but let the terror come. Everything in me felt still and quiet while the immeasurable mass of the unknown crashed over me and then crashed over me again. I had walked away from a career I’d devoted myself to and done well in, given up something I was good at simply because my intuition said it was time. It was clear the best thing for me to do was sleep. So I went to bed and slept 14 hour nights for a month.

Tom Wark posted yesterday about Karen MacNeil‘s recent keynote address at the Wine Blogger’s Conference in the Finger Lakes. Karen spoke at the Wine Writers’ Symposium here in Napa Valley in February. There she shared a story about the challenges of beginning her writing career – how long it took to have even one article accepted; how little money she had in the meantime. The contrast between her clear success now and the starkness of her writing roots then was inspiring. There is power in such perseverance. In telling the story of her path it was as if she shared that power with all of us.

In Tom’s article on Karen, he admires her resilience and then also considers a conundrum. How do we invest in a job that seems so unimportant as writing about wine? How do we find our inspiration?

Stephan and Malquay Ivanoff, my great grandparents

Stephan and Malquay Ivanoff, my paternal great grandparents. Photographer unknown

My work as a philosophy professor was something I believed in utterly. My doctoral dissertation investigated the question of what it means to be indigenous. The inspiration came entirely from my own family. I am an Aleut and Inupiat woman from Alaska that was lucky enough to be raised with extended family, our traditional foods, and a multi-generational blanket of family stories. During my doctoral program I discovered I was likely the first Aleut to pursue a doctorate in philosophy. The relevance of that was clear. In doing any of my work I felt my great grandparents, my grandparents, my late uncles, my distant cousins, and generations of ancestors I’d never met standing quiet and strong behind me. Their spirit was there to help push my work forward because I was there, in a sense, doing it for all of us. Any time I sat at my desk to write they were there. If I spoke in front of groups or when I was teaching they were there. Their presence gave me a power to do my work. The most difficult aspect of leaving my career rested there. I had, without meaning to, become a metaphorical conduit for my people. Whether I wrote about my family or not, my family in some way saw my work as about them. For me too, it was. They were a reason for me to invest completely in what I was doing. In leaving my career I was also choosing to leave that role as a sort of intellectual elder, and to risk losing that sense of all my ancestors beside me. When I closed my contract I walked away from work that was for all of them and for the first time stood in that open field alone.

It took time for me to recognize I’d begun a career in wine. In the meantime, it was simply something I was doing because I am a person built for projects, and wine gave me one. I poured all of my energy into building that project. For two years I visited as many vintners as possible for intensive one-on-one tastings and conversations at least five days a week without a break or pay, sharing much of what I was doing online. Posting my project online via this blog and social media was in its origin simply a means for me to circumscribe my own work. I wasn’t attempting to build an audience. Instead, I needed a way to recognize progress. In graduate school I’d developed a process of researching a subject then writing an in depth summary for my supervisors as a way of maintaining a conversation. Without a supervisor in wine, sharing an account of my vintner visits online gave me a way to imagine something like that conversation and see an accumulation of work. It was a way to hold myself accountable. Eventually I looked up and realized I’d built the start of a new profession. My blog writing eventually spread into writing for magazines both online and in print, as well as giving talks or leading panels. In a sense those aspects of the work I do look very much like what I’d done before in academia. My new career has depended very much on the online sharing I’d been doing initially only for a sense of perspective.

In responding to Karen’s key note address, Tom considered the idea of family and how they can serve as an inspiration for our work. In leaving my career one of the things I left behind was the weighty sense of obligation I’d carried for my extended family. I didn’t lose the dedication I have for them, and in a sense the drive I have for excellence (in whatever form) rests deeply in that dedication to them. What I let go of was the expectation that I could ever do something that would fulfill the path of my ancestors. I would no longer be the only Aleut in philosophy. I couldn’t carry my ancestors with me there. It’s hard for me to explain the sorrow of that for me except through that image of for the first time standing alone.

5 generations of my family, photo by my sister

Five generations of my family five days after the birth of my niece, photo by my sister Melanie Brown

Unexpectedly, it is precisely there, in the starkness of that change that I now find my inspiration. Leaving a career I’d invested everything into, including my imagined ancestors, was a moment of erasing all expectations. I could no longer rely on a prescribed path of a recognizable career, nor on the sense of feeling generations beside me. I had no promise of the future. Though my perspective on such change has continuously shifted, in a way that sense of standing in an open field without a promised future hasn’t. The gift of such bareness has been that every wine visit, every written article, every magazine connection has arrived as an unforeseen bonus, an unexpected delight found in an open field. For me, it is there I find a source of immeasurable gratitude. Still with most visits I count myself profoundly lucky to simply listen to their stories, as if they are sharing their ancestors with me and I can see those ancestors standing strong and quiet beside the person I am listening to. Sometimes their ancestors have as much to tell through what the person doesn’t quite say as the person through what they do.

Over time, I have also found a different source of power, one much like I felt in Karen sharing her story. Her being willing to share so honestly the challenges of her upbringing in wine stands as a way of sharing a new form of freedom. New because her path of challenge and success is one different than our own but reveals through its details new insights any of us might choose to continue forward ourselves. Freeing too because of the humanity witnessed through storytelling. In admitting to her own difficulties, Karen offers us a way to see we are like her. That someone we admire has challenges too, so our challenges perhaps are not so unusual or so insuperable.

In writing about Karen’s keynote, Tom concludes with the point that he found the story of her path inspiring, that it makes him want to do better work. I would say that what I find in Tom’s post is the sense that through Karen’s speech he has found a new strength. Ultimately, it is there too that I find my inspiration, the discovery that in persistence and vulnerability we have the opportunity to share strength with each other.

***

Karen MacNeil has just completed the 2nd edition of her groundbreaking book, The Wine Bible. The new edition will be available October, 2015. It reflects over five years of work traveling major regions throughout the world, tasting over 10,000 wines, and doing thorough research to then write a fully updated book. The new edition is an invaluable reference for any wine lover.

For more information on the new edition you can visit Karen’s site herehttp://www.karenmacneil.com/product/the-wine-bible-2nd-edition/

To read Tom Wark’s blog post on Karen’s talk: http://fermentationwineblog.com/2015/08/karen-macneil-inspiration-and-art-of-wine-blogging/

With thanks to Tom Wark.

Copyright 2015 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com.

In Praise of Discomfort

I’m at my best uncomfortable. I blame my parents though it isn’t really their fault. They raised me commercial fishing for salmon from the age of 9, till I retired in my early 20s, and it’s shaped my life ever since. I’ve spent my adulthood retraining simple habits I picked up fishing like going without food, water, or the bathroom as some faulty testament of fortitude and strength. Even so, summers still I schedule myself for work past the point of fatigue and revel along the way in pulling it off semi-gracefully. Part of me still admires the capacity to work beyond apparent human limits, as if it isn’t really me that pulls it off. I just get to be part of it. This July, for example, I completed the first half day of a visit with a migraine and the producers never found out. The man that drove me that day graciously helped track questions during the interview, for which I am endlessly grateful. I could keep up with the conversation. I just needed help connecting a few of the dots. My notebook is still full with notes of their wines, the vineyard, and their story. It’s good fortune that gives me the opportunity to meet with so many producers and I want to give them that time when I travel. Had I cancelled  to recover I would have missed the chance for that meeting. It’s hard to explain how much joy I find in simply listening to other’s stories (though I don’t always just listen).

This summer I’ve posted little here because I’ve been so busy elsewhere. For those of you that don’t know, when I’m traveling I’ve taken to telling the story of the people and regions I visit via Instagram, where it also routes to Facebook. There you will find photos of some of the people I meet along the way along with insightful quotations from our visit, or a factual dig into their story. For example, Phillip Hart walked me through his Ambythe Vineyard in Paso Robles where we discussed his work as well as the effects of the drought. Ambythe began harvesting this week.

Phillip Hart in his Ambythe Vineyard, Paso Robles

from Instagram: Phillip Hart walking his Ambythe Vineyard, Paso Robles

Paso Robles is just one of the regions I was lucky enough to visit. May began in Long Island, and then Chicago; June took me to Walla Walla as well as the West Sonoma Coast (again); July dug into Paso and Ballard Canyon in Santa Barbara County as well as parts of Napa. This month I’m catching up on articles and illustrations.

I’ll be writing more from these travels here through the rest of the year, as well as at JancisRobinson.com, and elsewhere. I’m excited about work I’m doing for World of Fine Wine especially, as there I get to bring together my training in philosophy with my work in wine. It’s nice to recombine my professional worlds. In the meantime, here are a couple favorite photos from my travels looking at subjects I’ll be writing about more here.

Long Island

Christopher Tracy of Channing Daughter in The Hamptons, Long Island

Christopher Tracy, winemaker of Channing Daughters on the South Fork of Long Island, has some of the greatest creative latitude of any winemaker I’ve met. The winery sells the range of wines to prove it. He works too with soil scientist and viticulturist, Larry Perrine. Larry now directs Channing Daughters, but he arrived in Long Island at the start of the 1980s as a viticultural and winemaking consultant helping to solve nutritional problems suffered by the region’s vineyards. Together they offer a range of wines from classic chardonnays to Friuli-inspired white blends, to field blends made from the vines of Cornell’s Extension and Research Vineyard on Long Island’s North Fork.

Walla Walla

Norm McKibbenNorm McKibben led vineyard plantings in Walla Walla (W2) helping to expand quality vineyards through the region as well as inspire and support the work of others. His dedication to the W2 industry has been pivotal in so quickly establishing it as a celebrated region in the world. He is the founder of Pepperbridge and Amavi Cellars in W2 and helped maintain and expand the Seven Hills Vineyard – Sevein planting into one of the most sought after in the state.

Paso Robles

Mark Adams, Ledge Vineyard

Ledge Vineyards founder Mark Adams returned to Paso Robles and wine growing after a life in music and sound effects editing for major producers in Los Angeles. Today he makes some of the most delicious and drinkable Rhone wines of Paso Robles while farming his home vineyard in one of the few sandy soil sites of the county. In the last few weeks he expanded his family’s Ledge Vineyard planting to grow more Rhone whites and reds. Mark also makes wine just across the street with one of his long time friends, Justin Smith at Saxum.

Ballard Canyon in Santa Barbara County

At the top of Tierra Alta with Sonja Magdevski, John Belfy and Greg BrewerJohn Belfy (shown here center) has helped lead vineyard development and farming in Santa Barbara County‘s distinctive Ballard Canyon from its inception. His work established Jonata Vineyard and he planted and continues to farm Tierra Alta Vineyards as well, among others. Winemaker Sonja Magdevski of Casa Dumetz (shown here left) is just one of the winemakers that sources fruit from his Ballard Canyon site and counts him as an inspiration. Greg Brewer of Brewer Clifton and Melville (shown here right) makes wine from Sta Rita Hills but credits John for support and encouragement received earlier in Greg’s career.

Copyright 2015 all rights reserved. When sharing or forwarding, please attribute to WakawakaWineReviews.com.

The Return of Cal-Ital

Palmina

By the early 2000s, Cal-Ital was dead. It was almost impossible to sell California wine made from Italian cultivars. During the following decade consumer interest in the phenomenon remained minimal and few sommeliers would consider such wines. Recently, however, there has been a renaissance of the category. But the return of Cal-Ital hasn’t been easy. It’s proven a study in resilience. It’s also meant a shift in philosophy. While much of the original Cal-Ital movement arose from producers making wines such as Sangiovese as a side project to their more central Cabernet focus, today’s Cal-Ital has meant a more complete shift in thinking. In the last several years, a handful of newer Italian-focused California labels have been launched, bringing breadth to a conversation that for a decade was maintained by only two or three producers.

Digging out of the Cal-Ital problem

California’s wine industry was historically rooted in Italian immigrants bringing cuttings from their home country but after phylloxera and Prohibition, plantings shifted predominantly to French cultivars. Before 1980 varieties such as Sangiovese existed only in the historic Italian-Swiss Colony of the North Coast. Barbera had a presence throughout the state but did not enjoy the prestige of other Italian varieties. It was seen as an able blender rather than as a varietal wine in its own right.

In the 1980s and 1990s, however, a rush of interest brought Sangiovese to Northern California, made most famously by producers such as Robert Pepi; Atlas Peak in Napa Valley, co-owned by Tuscan winemaker Piero Antinori; and Ferrari-Carano in Sonoma. By 1997, 2,500 acres (1,012 ha) of the grape were spread across the state but the variety was primarily being made by vintners treating it as a side project while they focused on French varieties. Quality suffered. The unique needs of Italian wines were inimical to the techniques familiar to most California producers of Bordeaux varieties. By the start of this century, the almost two decades given to North Coast Sangiovese seemed inadequate to stabilise quality and critics were severe. Although producers in Southern California, such as Santa Barbara County’s Palmina, were also making Italian-inspired wines, critics looked to North Coast examples and declared Cal-Ital an experiment that had failed. Led by negative reviews, consumer interest all but disappeared.

To keep reading, head on over to JancisRobinson.com. You will need to have a subscription.

Here’s the link to the article: http://www.jancisrobinson.com/articles/cal-ital-wip

If you don’t have one already subscribing is relatively easy and affordable. Subscription is £6.99 a month or £69 per year ($11/mo or $109 a year for you Americans) and includes searchable access to the Oxford Companion to Wine ($65) and the World Atlas of Wine ($50) as part of the subscription costs, as well as interactive discussions on the Purple Pages. Click here to sign up.

The Queen of the Bench

Congratulations on 25 beautiful years, Cathy!

“I feel like I’ve had a front row seat from the 1970s to now,” Cathy Corison tells me. Corison specializes in single-varietal Cabernet from Napa Valley’s Rutherford bench, and the recent release of her 2011 vintage marks the 25-year anniversary of her eponymous label.

In June 1975, when Corison arrived with all she owned – just the goods that fit inside her white Volkswagen bug – Napa Valley was an economically depressed, rural, and largely unknown farming community. Driving the length of the valley included swaths of unplanted land; today it is covered in vines. “There were about 30 wineries in Napa Valley in 1975,” Corison says. “I arrived in June. The Paris tasting was the next spring in 1976. It was a really exciting time.” The success of California in Steven Spurrier’s famous Judgment of Paris’ tasting would instigate a rush of interest in wine from the region after decades of struggle. Corison would be among the sprint pack bringing Napa into a whole new course of winemaking. …

To keep reading this article, you’ll have to check out the current issue of Noble Rot MagazineIf you haven’t read Noble Rot Magazine before, it’s likely right up your alley. That is, if you are into the kind of work I do here, you’ll find writing there you’re likely compatible with. Each issue of Noble Rot digs into the world of wine with a combined sense of playfulness and geeky fervor. 

You can order single issues or subscribe to the magazine, depending on which suits your interests. That means you can order just Issue 8, The California Special, that includes my Corison article, if you wish. But I recommend considering a full subscription. It’s worth the price.

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A Guide to Long Island (and tasting notes)

Larry Perrine, Channing Daughters

A two-hour drive east from Manhattan sits Long Island wine country. While winegrowing in the region began in the mid 1970s, it didn’t develop a concentration of vines for another 20 years. …

For those of you that follow along on Instagram, you already know I spent an intensive 8 days digging further into the wines of Long Island. I’ll be writing more on the movers and shakers of Long Island wine here over the next few months. But I’ve already published an overview of the conditions and challenges, as well as a dig into some of the stand out wines over on JancisRobinson.com.

Here’s a link to the overview article: http://www.jancisrobinson.com/articles/a-guide-to-long-island-wines

And to the tasting notes: http://www.jancisrobinson.com/articles/long-island-the-tasting-notes

The articles are pay-to-read but subscriptions at JancisRobinson.com are pretty straightforward and affordable. The site offers excellent articles every day about wine all over the world, as well as news events as they happen.

Subscription is £6.99 a month or £69 per year ($11/mo or $109 a year for you Americans) and includes searchable access to the Oxford Companion to Wine ($65) and the World Atlas of Wine ($50) as part of the subscription costs, as well as interactive discussions on the Purple Pages. Click here to sign up.

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Following the Growth of the Vine

Looking into Barlow Homestead Pinot

The early stages of shoot positioning – Barlow Homestead Pinot, May 2015

Earlier this year, Jr and I visited with Paul and Kathryn Sloan of Small Vines to track green pruning and bud break at their Barlow Homestead Vineyard in the heart of Green Valley. Jr created a video interview of Paul on the two viticultural events, which you can view here: http://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/06/a-year-with-small-vines-bud-break-green-pruning/

In May, and earlier this month I returned to track two different phases of shoot positioning with Paul. In a cane pruned vineyard relying on vertical shoot positioning, repeated passes for shoot positioning serve as an essential step to the health and balance of the vines offering ample air flow and canopy management for the developing clusters.

The following shares an overview of the process and a look at the importance of shoot positioning in the midst of a year’s vineyard management.

Shoot Positioning

Getting ready to shoot position with Bryce Potter + Paul Sloangetting ready to shoot position: (from left) Bryce Potter, me, Paul Sloan, May 2015

In a cane pruned, VSP trained site, shoot positioning serves as the next step after green pruning. While green pruning forms the basic architecture of the vine, shoot positioning manicures and directs the growth of the vine. Shoot positioning, then, occurs in multiple steps through vine growth.

The timing of shoot positioning depends on the growth of the vineyard in the particular vintage. 2015 brought a challenging spring for vineyards in Sonoma. With warm January and February weather, growth came early to the vines bringing early bud break and shoot growth. April and May then cooled off significantly, generating what is known as Spring Fever in many Pinot vineyards through the region.

Spring Fever + Frost Damage

Spring Fever is caused by the vine starting to grow from warm weather conditions, and then shutting down again when temperatures drop. Nitrogen gets locked into place in the vine, which in severe cases can lead to nitrogen necrosis in the leaves. In milder cases, as new leaves develop the vine recovers photosynthesizing through the upper leaves. Even so, with Spring Fever, vine growth is slowed – colder temperatures slow vine development, and in the case of nitrogen necrosis the vines ability to photosynthesize is impacted through leaf loss.

Frost damage can also show in damage to vine tips. When temperatures are cold enough, frost effectively singes vine tips, turning them brown and stopping shoot growth. In such cases, secondary shoots will sometimes push from the trunk of the vine becoming the focus for vine development that year.

Shoot Positioning 

Paul Sloan shoot positioning Barlow Homestead Pinot

Paul Sloan shoot positioning Barlow Homestead Pinot, May 2015

In vertical shoot positioning, shoot growth is managed through a series of steps moving wires into ever higher positions as the shoots get taller, or through tucking shoots between wires. Wires are placed on the trellis system in pairs that effectively create a sandwich around shoots as they grow, with one wire at the front and one at the back of the training system and shoots growing between.

Generally, moving wires is more desirable than tucking shoots as it is faster. In moving wires, however, it is important to be careful to avoid pulling leaves or breaking shoots. As vines grow, their tips and leaves will sometimes wrap wires, or other shoots. This must be managed when moving wires to avoid damaging vines. Tucking vines, on the other hand, is generally done for specific vines rather than entire rows and includes the risk of damaging shoots through breakage.

Wires are placed at the right height to support shoots maintaining a vertical position. Then shoots are spaced at approximately a hand’s width apart with clips used to hold the shoots in the best position between wires. The clips can be moved as needed to adjust to vine growth.

Clips for shoot positioning

clips used for shoot positioning. The C-shaped clips are biodegradable natural fiber and are used for when wires need to be held close together to maintain the shoot to secure the its position. 

Shoot positioning clip

The reusable black clips offer more flexibility and can be used to loop a shoot exactly in place, to offer wider spacing between wires, or to wrap a wire for even closer spacing. 

As vine growth continues, shoot positioning is revisited again and again to keep shoots about a hand’s width apart (in order to keep clusters about a hand’s width apart), and to manage any secondary shoot growth. Rows are approached individually. Wires can be positioned as is appropriate to vine growth in that particular row, or even partial row. Then, vines are clipped individually.

Ideal shoot position depends on the architecture of the particular vine, however goals remain consistent in each case. The goals of shoot positioning include a balance of air flow and leaf shade for clusters. The balance of cluster count per vine is generally established in the earlier step of green pruning as the number of buds allowed to grow determines cluster potential. How that balance is achieved depends upon goals of the farmer such as overall yield, and goals of the winemaker such as wine style.

When it comes to recognizing ideal shoot positioning in the vineyard, Sloan emphasizes the importance of knowing your vineyard. “There is no one right formula, one right thing to do. You have to read your vines, your vineyard. The more you pay attention, the better decisions you can make.” Sloan explains.

The frequency with which Sloan revisits shoot positioning in his Small Vines-managed sites allows him to rely on organic viticulture as well. The attention given to architectural points such as ample airflow and canopy management also serves his ability to keep track of overall vine health, and issues such as disease or insect pressure.

Vine Health and Flavor Development

Organic cover crop

Paul Sloan discussing cover crop choices in Barlow Homestead, May 2015.
Cover crop through Spring is valuable in organic viticulture as it supports soil health and also offers a habitat for beneficial insects. Vines are most susceptible to harmful insects in Spring, so planting cover crops between rows plays an important role in vineyard health through the balancing of insect populations.

Effective canopy management supports the overall health of the vine reducing disease pressure while also encouraging flavor development.

“What is important about shoot positioning for the organic farmer,” Sloan explains, “is to have air flow through the leaves and clusters.” How such air flow is achieved depends on the overall architecture of the vine.

In vines that include higher cluster count, air flow must be encouraged through leaf removal — too much of both fruit and vegetation doesn’t allow enough air flow — which also has the effect of increasing sun exposure to clusters. On the other hand, to preserve canopy for shade while maintaining air flow, the vine must be shaped in such a way as to reduce cluster count and manage leaf position.

In the case of Small Vines, Sloan chooses to reduce cluster count per vine and focus on high density planting. High density planting reduces the soil nutrients and water supply available to any particular vine, slowing growth, reducing cluster count and leading to a sense of density in the fruit profile.

The Role of Sunlight on Fruit Development

Barlow Homestead Pinot clusters

Pinot in Barlow Homestead, early June 2015 (getting ready to do another pass of shoot positioning but note the architecture of the vine places shoots and clusters about a hands width apart)

Sloan clarifies that air flow is not the only factor relevant to shoot positioning. “Even more important than air flow is sunlight. You want sunlight on every leaf, on every shoot” but not on every cluster. Sunlight on the leaves encourages photosynthesis, and therefore also vine growth and fruit development. Direct sunlight to clusters, however, changes the flavor profile of the fruit as well as the fruit structure. To put that another way, directing sunlight to leaves and away from clusters tends to keep flavors in the fruit fresher and brighter. (To read more on the role of sunlight in flavor development, see the following profile on Andy Smith of DuMOL: http://wakawakawinereviews.com/2015/04/13/deepening-dumol-a-day-in-the-vines-with-andy-smith/)

Early sunlight on clusters often encourages thicker skin development (and therefore also more tannin profile), later sunlight on clusters changes the flavor profile of the fruit. Generally you can think of this sort of sun exposure as making flavors darker, moving flavors from fresh fruits to cooked fruit and kitchen flavors (such as caramel in the case of Chardonnay, for example). With reduced sunlight exposure on clusters, canopy management to promote air flow and reduce disease pressure becomes even more important. In this way, shoot positioning plays a role in both farming methods and wine style.

Vine Health and Wine Quality

Vine health also ultimately impacts wine quality. As Sloan explains, “The reason I am so emphatic about making wine from the vines I grow is because if I can keep walking vineyards, and I can move my crew where they’re needed, then I can affect wine quality directly.”

Sourcing fruit from multiple vineyards can be an excellent way for winemakers to get to know and express the signature of a region. Once a region is known, understanding the attention of a particular farmer is the next step to managing wine quality by finding an alignment between farming style and winemaking goals. In the case of Small Vines, Sloan develops and manages vineyard sites for others and makes his Small Vines wines from his own sites.

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